The protective effect of dexamethasone, a synthetic agonist of glucocorticoids, on the functional activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) in adult offspring in both genders whose mothers were subject to immobilization stress in last trimester of pregnancy, has been studied. Dexamethasone treatment prior to stressing pregnant rats prevented the manifestations of injuring effect of prenatal stress on HPAS activity in adult male offspring. The post-stressor changes in hypothalamic noradrenaline content and corticosterone level in blood plasma, as well as GABAA and GABA, receptors activity, did not differ from normal indices. In prenatally stressed female rats no preventive effect of dexamethasone has been reported. The results of investigations suggest the pathogenetic role of increased production of glucocorticoids in mediating the mechanisms of prenatal stress effects in gender-related functional disorders of HPAS. They demonstrate the possibility of pharmacological prevention of some congenital forms of neuroendocrine pathology and determine the necessity of a gender approach when developing preventive strategies.