The paper is dedicated to the history of creation and development of a new trend of scientific investigations in Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine and Ukraine as a whole, - molecular immunology - in the context of scientific, scientific-organizational, pedagogical, social and political activity of Serhiy Vasyliovych Komisarenko. Professor S. V. Komisarenko, Director of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, Full Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, President of the Ukrainian Biochemical Society (since 1999), editor-in-chief Ukrainian Biochemical Journal (1989-1992 and since 1998), Academician-Secretary and Member of the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (since April 2004) is a physician by education, molecular biologist by the calling, biochemist-immunologist by profession. He was one of the first researchers in our country who started systematic investigations in the field of molecular immunology, created a powerful world-famous scientific school, and made great contribution to solution of the acute problems of public health. He has proposed a new anti-tumor preparation MEBIFON which is produced at pharmaceutical firm Farmak in Kyiv. He was one of the first in the former USSR who introduced a hybridom technique for obtaining monoclonal antibodies. S. Komisarenko was awarded the State Prize of the Ukr. SSR (1979) for immunochemical investigation of milk for babies. He proved that small doses of total radiation cause essential inhibition of natural immunity, which he called "the Chernobyl AIDS". The collective of scientific workers of the Department of Molecular Immunology headed by S. Komisarenko was awarded the O. V. Palladin Prize of NAS of Ukraine (2003) for a cycle of works Immunochemical Analysis of Fibrin and Fibrinogen Polymerization Mechanisms. Serhiy Komisarenko combines successfully scientific, scientific-organizing activity with pedagogical work; he leads the division BIOTECHNOLOGY of the Department of Biochemistry at Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University. Under his supervision 6 doctors and 18 candidates of science have been prepared. He has above 400 scientific articles in the field of Biochemistry and/or Immunology, and more than 100 publications on Ukrainian culture and politics. Serhiy Komisarenko has performed great social and political work at the post of the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Ukraine, Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine responsible for humanitarian sector (1990-1992), Ambassador of independent Ukraine in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland (1992-1998). He is a trustee of activity of charitable organization of disabled children Special Olympics - Ukraine (since 2002). He was awarded a Diploma of the Supreme Council of Ukraine (2003), State Order of Merit (III degree - 1996, II degree - 1998), State Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (V degree - 2005). Serhiy Komisarenko was elected the Honorary Doctor of Kingston and North London Universities (1997). He has the Rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Ukraine.