The main genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is known to be conferred by the HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Other genetic factors within this complex are known to contribute, but their identity has often been controversial. This picture is shared with several other autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Moreover, as common genetic factors are known to exist between AIDs, associations reported with other AIDs may also be involved in T1D. In this study, we have used these observations in a candidate gene approach to look for additional MHC risk factors in T1D. Using complementary conditional methods (involving conditional logistic regression and family-based haplotype tests) and analyses of linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns, we confirmed association for alleles of the HLA-A and HLA-B genes and found preliminary evidence for a novel association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2259571) in the AIF1 gene, independent of the DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genes and of each other. However, no evidence of independent associations for a number of previously suggested candidate polymorphisms was detected. Our results illustrate the importance of a comprehensive adjustment for LD effects when performing association studies in this complex.