PURPOSE: We examined mental health and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with esophageal atresia (EA) and searched for predictors of impaired outcome. METHODS: The study group comprised 21 adolescents with EA and 1 or both parents. A comparison group comprised 36 adolescents from the general population. Mental health, self-esteem, psychosocial functioning, and parental/family functioning were assessed by standardized questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Physical health was assessed by growth and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Mental health and psychosocial functioning did not differ from the comparison group. Seven of 21 EA adolescents had special education. Dilatations of esophagus, birth weight, well-being, and maternal psychological distress were prognostic factors predicting mental health. Height, birth weight, well-being, dissociative symptoms, and family strain were prognostic factors predicting psychosocial functioning. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with EA adjusted well, and mental health and psychosocial functioning did not differ from controls. Dilatations of esophagus and birth weight were significant predictors of mental health and psychosocial functioning.