Chromosomal polymorphism has been investigated in 7 natural populations from West Europe, West Siberia and Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The pool of polytene chromosome banding sequences of this species includes 15 banding sequences. The chromosomal polymorphism has been revealed in 5 of chromosomal arms. The most polymorphic is the arm B, there are 4 banding sequences in it. There are 3 banding sequences in the arm A. The arms D, E and G have 2 banding sequences. No chromosome rearrangements have been found in the arms C and F. The populations of Chironomus cingulatus differ clearly in the number and frequencies of banding sequences. This is evidence of that different gene sequences are adaptive in different populations.