Studies and complete awareness of the regional and epidemiological properties of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) allow one to improve methods for preventing, diagnosing, and treating its severe neurological infection. The authors have developed reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) systems for the detection of RNA of TBEV and for the determination of its genotype in the ticks and clinical materials. RT-PTC was shown to have a higher sensitivity and specificity than the practically used enzyme immunoassay system. Despite significant variations in the spread of infected ticks in some districts of the Sverdlovsk Region (5-12%), the average regional value was 8% over the study period. The authors have studied more than a thousand of ticks collected from the nature and humans in the epidemic season of 2005-2006. There was a virtually complete predominance (more than 95%) of the Ural-Siberian genotype, with rare cases of the European genotype (slightly more than 4%) being detected. The Far-Eastern genotype was not detected.