OBJECTIVES - To describe demographics, injury characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in northern Sweden over 10 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS - Data were retrospectively collected on those individuals (n = 332) in Norrbotten, northern Sweden, with a TBI who had been transferred for neurosurgical care from 1992 to 2001. RESULTS - A majority were older men with a mild TBI and an acute or chronic subdural hematoma following a fall. Younger individuals were fewer but had more often a severe TBI from a traffic accident. Most individuals received post-acute care and brain injury rehabilitation. A majority had a moderate or severe disability, but many were discharged back home with no major changes in their physical or social environment. CONCLUSIONS - Our data confirm the relationship between age, cause of injury, injury severity and outcome in relation to TBI and underscore the need for prevention as well as the importance of TBI as a cause of long-term disability.