BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one of the lifestyle factors associated with a westernized, urban, and affluent lifestyle contributing to the rise in atopic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and atopy (aeroallergen sensitization). METHODS: In 1982, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3608 Danes (79% of the invited), aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, was carried out. Information on alcohol consumption was obtained by a questionnaire. Aeroallergen sensitization was defined as a positive test for the detection of specific IgE against a panel of 19 common inhalant allergens in stored serum samples. A total of 3317 subjects with complete information on all variables were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant association between alcohol consumption and aeroallergen sensitization (independent of the type of alcoholic drink consumed). This association appeared to relate only to those who consumed more than 8 drinks/week. After adjustment for confounders this association was only statistically significant for those who consumed 15-21 drinks/week (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.8). CONCLUSION: In this adult general population, self-reported alcohol consumption was positively associated with aeroallergen sensitization.