BACKGROUND: Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are widespread, and each year many tests are performed in general practice. AIM: First, to quantify the magnitude of stigmatization, problems related to partner, and anxiety of infertility among men and women tested for C. trachomatis in general practice. Second, to investigate the effect of a C. trachomatis test result on planned future condom use. DESIGN OF STUDY: Comparative cross-sectional study. SETTING: General practices in Aarhus County, Denmark. METHOD: Men and women tested for C. trachomatis in general practice were given a questionnaire about feelings of stigmatization, fear of partner's reaction, fear of future infertility and other psychosocial side effects related to being infected or not infected with C. trachomatis. RESULTS: A total of 277 participated in the study. The response rates were 61% (82/135) and 54% (195/365) among infected and non-infected individuals, respectively. Among the infected individuals 32% (9/28) of the men's partners and 35% (19/54) of the women's partners were upset about the test result, 9% (5/54) of the women and 11% (3/28) of the men split with their partner, 59% (32/54) of the women and 54% (15/28) of the men expressed nervousness about infertility, and 91% (19/21) of the women but only 56% (5/9) of the men said that they would use a condom more often in the future. All these figures were significantly lower for both men and women having C. trachomatis negative test results. CONCLUSION: A chlamydia test affects the individual in terms of sexuality, relation to partner, reproduction, and future contraceptive strategy. The influence is highest among women and individuals with a positive test result. These findings should be taken into account in screening programmes targeting young women and men.