Genetic diversity within the northern subspecies group of musk deer Moschus moschiferus L, 1758 was examined based on the mtDNA control region hypervariable fragment (300-bp) sequence polymorphism. Nucleotide diversity, constituting 2.6% for the whole sample (n = 34), varied in the range from 0.6 to 1.9% for individual subspecies. Maximum values of this index were observed for Siberian subspecies (M. m. moschiferus), which had the widest range. Genetic similarity between the haplotypes of the musk deer from the Far East (Russia) and Sakhalin Island, which grouped in one cluster in a phylogenetic tree, was demonstrated. The data obtained indicate that the distribution of musk deer along the territory of Russia occurred from Eastern Siberia to the Far East, and from there to the Sakhalin Island. A currently observed decrease of the musk deer population number along with the increased habitat fragmentation can result in a decrease of the total genetic diversity and in inbreeding depression in the local isolated groups.