In the beginning of this century 20 percent of all deaths in the county of Funen, Denmark, was caused by tuberculosis. The sanatorium of Nakkebølle was opened in 1908. Dr. Otto Helms (1866-1942), who was a great personality with hobbies such as ornithology and writing textbooks for school children, became the first medical director from 1908 to 1940 of this famous sanatorium. His life and especially his fight against tuberculosis at the sanatorium is described. In general, today tuberculosis in Denmark is a minor problem. However, the incidence of tuberculosis in immigrants, especially from Somalia, has caused some difficulties. In the future the challenge of this field consist of AIDS and tuberculosis, and multiresistent tuberculosis. Tuberculosis hopefully may cause only limited problems if professionals are aware of early diagnosis and careful treatment of the populations at risk.