Executive functions (EFs), seizure-related factors, and school performance were studied in a population-based sample of children with epilepsy (n=117; 71 males, 46 females; mean age 10y 5mo [SD 2y]; range 6y-12y 11mo) and a comparison group (n=124; 71 males, 53 females; mean age 10y 1mo [SD 2y 1mo]; range 6y-12y 11mo). EF, cognitive function, depression, socioeconomic status, and school performance were examined. Patients with epilepsy performed significantly lower than the comparison group on all EF measures except incidental memory. Intellectual dysfunction and depression accounted for 43% of EF problems. All epilepsy syndrome groups (except Rolandic epilepsy) were associated with decreased EF in addition to early epilepsy onset, high seizure frequency, and polytherapy. Patients had more school performance problems than comparison children which were attributed partly to EF difficulties. All aspects of EF were affected in children with epilepsy and all epilepsy syndrome groups, except Rolandic epilepsy, influenced EF negatively. EF problems contributed to patients' school difficulties beyond intellectual dysfunction.