Sponsored by the State Family Planning Commission, the International Seminar on the 1980 Sampling Survey on Fertility and Contraception of China was held from 26 to 29 August 1991 in Beijing. More than 70 participants from China, the US, Sweden, India, and Pakistan attended the seminar. State Councillor Li Tieying, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, Liu Zheng, President of the China Population Association, Stirling Scruggs, country director of UNFPA Beijing Office, and Dr. Bernard P. Kean, Representative of WHO in China, and many others were present at the opening ceremony. The survey obtained specific and accurate data on China's population and family planning status, including some indicators that were listed as survey items for the 1st time, which attracted the attention of the experts and scholars in population research and FP management personnel both in China and abroad. Participants in the seminar presented more than 50 papers. They exchanged research findings in the past 3 years and evaluated China's population status and family planning program. Peng Peiyun pointed out that "in order to do better work in family planning, we need to pursue 2 paths. First, we must improve family planning services through the longterm meticulous and painstaking education, so as to increase the conscientiousness and activity of the people for the implementation of family planning. Second, we need to strengthen the scientific research in the field of family planning so as to make the family planning work of China more scientific." She added that the seminar "will surely achieve fruitful results in the field of demography and promote family planning in China and make contributions to the study of the world's population." China's National Sampling Survey on Fertility and Contraception was sponsored by the STate Family Planning Commission in 1988 together with the State Statistical Bureau and others. The survey is a large scale one centered on the birth history and the history of contraception by women. The size of samples for this survey covers a population of 2.15 million, which accounts for 2/1000 of the national total on the mainland of China. The samples are distributed over the 30 provinces.