Lately the role of internship and primary specialization courses in postgraduate medical training of phthisiologists has decreased. Only 8 per cent of 576 physicians at the courses in advanced phthisiological training at the Vinnitsa Medical Institute had primary specialization. The majority of physicians are usually referred to courses in advanced general and thematic medical training without previous sufficient specialization. This brings about marked difficulties in the work of the departments of advanced medical training and lowers the potentialities of high quality training. To individualize education, it is necessary that medical institutions had more rights in defining the programs for every course proceeding from the students age, professional level and previous training. A system is needed for centralized supply of methodical and instructive materials, as well as training and diagnostic equipment to educational departments.