Results of examination of 65 patients, to whom twenty years before pneumonectomy was performed for pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases, were analyzed. Peculiarities of postoperative period course were determined in patients with early complications, including the tuberculosis reactivation. Methods of examination: clinical investigation, standard laboratory tests, bacteriologic investigation of phlegm, roentgenography, multiradial roentgenoscopy of thoracic cage, bronchography, computeric tomography, roentgenokymography, spirography, pneumotachometry. Specific and nonspecific changes in lungs, which resided, were revealed accordingly in 20 and 23.3% patients. The tuberculosis reactivation is possible twenty years after the operation. Pneumonectomy performance permits to eliminate an active tuberculosis in 70-80% patients. The tuberculosis changes in residual lung worsen the patients quality of life after pulmonectomy performance due to progress of respiratory insufficiency.