The specific features of the health status of the indigenous population, the risk factors of tuberculosis, which determine the different rates of mortality, the differences in the clinical picture of complications, concurrent diseases, the causes of death in relation to the biogeochemical conditions of the environment have been traced in the Republic of Chuvashia. With this, the differences are of great value in the content of trace elements and their ratios. The similar features in the basic epidemiological parameters have been found in the biogeochemically specific Aldan and Abyi districts of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A long-term chronic experiment on inbred CBA mice has shown the value of the deficiency and excess of the trace element silicon in the formation of resistance to tuberculous infection. The findings have predetermined the feasibility of using the silicon preparation silicea in the combined treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with antituberculous agents that are highly effective and inexpensive.