Two hundred and twenty twins of Ukrainian ethnic group have been examined (89 monozygotic (MZ) and 131 dizygotic (DZ) pairs) during peripubertal (42 MZ and 69 DZ) and mature (47 MZ and 69 DZ) age periods. Of them: 94 are male pairs (31 MZ and 62 DZ) and 126 female (58 MZ and 68 DZ) pairs. The program including 16 anthropometric, 48 osteometric and 8 osteoscopic signs has been performed according to the recommendations suggested by D. G. Rokhlin (1936), V. V. Bunak (1941) and B. A. Nikityuk (1968). The hereditary influence on the longitudinal anthropometric signs decreases in mature age with a simultaneous increase of these influences on weight parameters and transversal dimensions of the trunk. Transition from the peripubertal to the mature age is characterised by a decrease of genetic effects on highly-hereditable osteometric signs and an increasing effect of heredity on the skeletal ageing signs. The degree of hereditarily-dependent skeletal ageing is higher in the I mature than in the II mature age, and in the female it is higher than in the male group.