To follow up the outcome of refertilization after female sterilization, the Danish women refertilized from 1978 through 1983 were contacted by questionnaires, and the operative reports from sterilization and refertilization were obtained. Ninety percent (132/147) responded. The median follow up time was 39 months (range 18-83). Forty-four percent of the women became pregnant, 26% gave live birth, 7% had a miscarriage only, and 11% had a tubal pregnancy. The results of reversal of sterilization by means of conventional surgery (n = 101) and microsurgery with microscope or magnifying glasses (n = 31) did not differ in terms of number of live births. Refertilization after sterilization by laparoscopic methods was more successful: 34% of these women gave live birth, whereas 19% gave live birth after reversal of sterilization performed by resection of the tubes. The predictive value of peroperative tubal patency for subsequent pregnancy was 32%, whereas the prediction of no pregnancy in cases of no patency was found to be 60% correct. Postoperative hysterosalpingography (HSG) showing tubal patency was of predictive value for later pregnancy in 45%, whereas no patency by HSG gave a correct prediction for no pregnancy in 94% of the cases. In order to improve the skill of the surgeons, and thus, apply the microsurgical technique to full advantage, it would seem necessary to concentrate reversal of female sterilization on a small number of departments especially interested in this technique.