The aim was to analyse the neonatal mortality related to mode of delivery for twins using a population-based registry. In all, 18,125 twins delivered in Sweden between 1991 and 1997, after excluding those with unknown gestational duration, were used to analyse the differences between groups of twins. Results showed the OR for neonatal death, breech vaginal delivery versus caesarean section (all indications) was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-2.17). The OR at vaginal delivery for neonatal death, twin I in breech versus cephalic presentation was 5.60 (2.62-11.94) and for twin II the corresponding figures were 1.85 (1.03-3.32). Analyses using population-based registries from other countries are needed to confirm or reject the present findings of an increased neonatal mortality for twins in breech presentation delivered vaginally.