After 30 years of control, epidemic diphtheria returned to the Soviet Union in 1990. To develop control strategies, the immunogenicity of the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine was assessed. Workers who were 18-67 years old received two Td immunizations separated by 30 days. A neutralization assay determined diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) on enrollment and on days 7, 30, 60, and 425. On enrollment, 43.0% of 488 workers had DAT /=0.1 IU/mL, after two doses, 92.2% had >/=0.1 IU/mL and >90% of participants /=50 years of age attained >/=1.0 IU/mL; however, only 78.4% of those who were 30-39 years old and 51.8% of those who were 40-49 years old achieved >/=1.0 IU/mL after two doses. To control the epidemic in Ukraine, one Td dose should be administered to virtually the entire population (persons 30-49 years old require three doses of Td for optimal individual protection and to maximize population immunity).