Photoperiod was hypothesized to mediate T cell-dependent B cell production of IgM and IgG. Antigens induced production of specific immunoglobulins; serum IgM but not IgG, was higher in males in long vs. short days (16 vs. 8 h light/day) and similarly among all groups of females. A second immunization with KLH robustly enhanced serum IgM, as well as IgG; increases were blunted in short- vs. long-day males but not in females. Thus, in male but not female hamsters, winter-like short days restrain aspects of primary and secondary humoral immune responses to xenoantigens. Actions on lymphocyte activities or clonal expansion are in considerations.