Epidemiologic knowledge of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is limited. A seroepidemiologic study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the infection in Newfoundland and Labrador. Between October 1983 and October 1985 over 200 people were recognized through routine serodiagnosis and screening as having hepatitis B seromarkers. A total of 223 serum samples from 186 of these people were tested for anti-HDV. The subjects were mainly asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen or patients with acute or chronic hepatitis B from the native Indian and Inuit and the non-native populations. None of the serum samples were positive for anti-HDV. The absence of anti-HDV in a substantial number of people in the province who are infected with hepatitis B virus is strong evidence that HDV infection is not prevalent in the local population, including native people.