The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of previous clinical hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the prevalence of HBV markers in Danish oral surgeons, to estimate the annual HBV infection rate, and to assess whether the use of hepatitis B vaccine is to be recommended for this group. The total study population comprised 40 individuals occupied with oral surgery. A questionnaire and a request for a blood sample were sent to all dentists employed at the Danish hospitals and the departments of oral surgery at the 2 dental colleges. 36 (90%) answered a questionnaire, whereas only 27 (67.5%) had a blood sample taken for analysis of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), antibody to hepatitis core antigen (anti-HBcAg), antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV), and serumtransaminases. One had been clinically ill from HBV infection and was positive for anti-HBs. The prevalence rate was thus 3.7% (95% confidence limits: 0.1%-19.0%) and the annual attack rate was 0.3%. The prevalence was not higher than among Danish dentists in general, and they are not considered a high-risk group in Denmark. Even with due statistical consideration to the present small sample, Danish oral surgeons do not seem to belong to a high-risk group like other surgeons in different medical specialities. It is concluded that the use of a hepatitis B vaccine is not recommended at present for this group of dentists.