Factor V Leiden (FVL) is associated with venous thrombosis; however, an association between FVL and arterial thrombosis remains controversial. We investigated FVL as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke (IS), or non-MI ischemic heart disease (non-MI-IHD). The design was 3 case-control studies and 3 prospective studies with 21 years' follow-up. The setting was the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants for The Copenhagen City Heart Study were 20- to 95-year-old participants without cardiovascular disease (control population, n = 7907) or participants diagnosed with MI (n = 469), IS (n = 231), or non-MI-IHD (n = 365). In addition, 3 independent patient populations from Copenhagen University Hospital with MI (n = 493), IS (n = 231), or non-MI-IHD (n = 448) were included. We measured FVL genotype; major cardiovascular risk factors; and MI, IS, and non-MI-IHD incidence and prevalence. Prevalences of FVL heterozygotes and homozygotes in control subjects from the general population were 7.7% and 0.2%. Odds ratios and relative risks of MI in FVL carriers (heterozygotes + homozygotes) versus noncarriers were 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-1.69) and 0.83 (0.58-1.20) in case-control and prospective studies, respectively. Corresponding risks for IS were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.56-1.53) and 0.68 (0.45-1.04), and for non-MI-IHD 1.01 (95% CI, 0.71-1.44) and 0.97 (0.66-1.42). Findings from The Copenhagen City Heart Study suggest that FVL is not associated with MI, IS, or non-MI-IHD.