Among all the Nobel Laureates in physiology or medicine there are five from Denmark and seven from Sweden. The first three Laureates are presented in this paper. Over 50 years have elapsed since they were awarded and the Nobel archives are now open for scrutiny, providing insight into how the Nobel committee interpreted the instruction given in Nobel's will at that time. Niels Finsen (1860-1904, Nobel Laureate 1903) devoted his short life to a continuous study of the biological effects of sunshine, which resulted in a method aimed at utilizing the bacteriocide properties of sun rays in the treatment of various skin diseases and especially tuberculosis. Finsen published his first paper on this topic in 1896 and his method revolutionized the current treatment of this disease. Approximately forty Finsen Institutes were established in Europe and the USA within the subsequent five years. Alvar Gullstrand (1869-1930, Nobel Laureate 1911) was an ophthalmologist but his main interest was mathematical physics, where he achieved results of utmost importance for clinical opthalmology. He systematically studied the optical system, from the physical properties of light rays to optimal images in different media of the eye. He formulated general laws if image, which he extrapolated to the human eye. He also devised several techniques, some of which still used in ophthalmology. August Krogh (1874-1949, Nobel Laureate 1920) was a zoological physiologist, actively involved in various fields, including human muscle physiology and metabolism, capillary circulation in the frog, water regulation in the desert rat and the jumping capacity of the grasshopper. He was the founder of modern human exercise physiology and sport medicine. Krogh received the Nobel prize the year after he published his first paper on the regulation of the motor activity of capillaries, which reflected the Nobel committee's desire at that time to support a young scientist in the most successul period of his career. Through his continuous brilliant research during three decades Krogh eminently demonstrated that the committee had indeed use far-sighted judgement.