AIM: This study aims to investigate suicide risk factors after attempted suicide and whether and how these risk factors differ between the sexes. METHOD: A total of 1052 suicide attempters admitted to the Medical Emergency Inpatient Unit, Lund University Hospital, Sweden were followed up concerning suicide and death from other causes after a median period of 6 years and 5 months. In all, 50 persons committed suicide during follow-up. At the index suicide attempt, socio-demographic data and information about clinical characteristics were gathered in a standardised manner. Risk factors were identified among these data using survival analyses for the whole sample and for each sex separately. RESULT: Men had a higher frequency of suicide and a greater overall mortality than women. Cox regressions showed that suicide attempt(s) prior to the index attempt and the use of a violent method for the index attempt were risk factors for men only, whereas older age and a high suicidal intent (Beck SIS score) were female ones. Major depression was a risk factor for both sexes. CONCLUSION: More attention probably needs to be paid to the importance of gender in assessment of suicide risk and treatment of suicide attempters.