The subcellular localization of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II has been compared in Simian virus (SV40)-infected and uninfected TC7 monkey cells. In SV40-infected cells, both of these enzymes are preferentially associated with the chromatin. Some topoisomerase I is associated with the nuclear matrix, whereas topoisomerase II shows no such association. In uninfected TC7 cells, topoisomerase I is present in both the chromatin and nuclear matrix fractions. Topoisomerase II, on the other hand, is not detected in any of the subcellular fractions of uninfected cells. After SV40 infection, there is a marked increase in the level of chromatin-associated topoisomerase II.