An atypical case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) occurred in a 46-year-old Inupiat Eskimo man with no behavioral risk factors for HTLV-I infection. The case was characterized by lack of atypical circulating lymphocytes, hypercalcemia, and opportunistic infections; and by complete remission of the initial renal parenchymal lymphoma. The lymphoma cells had a helper T-cell (CD4) immunophenotype. Serum antibodies to HTLV I/II, detected by Western immunoblot, were identified in specimens collected 31 months before the onset of illness, at the time of diagnosis, and up to 37 months later, shortly before the patient's death. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify HTLV-I DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in lymphoma in involved skin. Clinicians should be alert to sporadic cases of both atypical and classic ATL, even in populations in which the prevalence of HTLV-I infection is low.