In a Danish county (the island of Funen) cytogenetic screening for fragile X [fra(X)] of 32 autistic individuals aged 0-23 years showed a prevalence of 2/20 among boys and 0/12 among girls. In both cases additional fra(X) positive relatives were found. In 3 patients other chromosome aberrations were demonstrated and in one female Rett syndrome was diagnosed, initially suspected from observations of her behavior on videotapes. The presence of an underlying cause of autism in 6/32, of the patient group encourages an active search for a specific diagnosis among autistic males and females. Future screening of autistic individuals should include 1) fra(X) search also in females, 2) search for other chromosomal disorders, and 3) observation of behavior, in order to diagnose, i.e., Rett syndrome.