This investigation is a cross-sectional investigation based on the registers available which describe the conditions of health in children born in 1978 and resident in 1987 in two different social districts, one of which was socially, stressed while the other was slightly less stressed. The vaccination coverage was found to be lower in the socially stressed district and lower among immigrant children. More unvaccinated children were observed among children of mothers who received public assistance and of single parents. Hospital admissions on account of diagnoses due to infection were thrice as frequent from the socially stressed district. As regards height, weight and psychomotor status, no differences were observed between the districts. The investigation indicates that social inequalities cause health inequalities and that, in particular, there appears to be a need for health-promoting efforts where the socially stressed environments are concerned e.g. immigrant families.