Great differences in the activity of the epidemic process of hepatitis B (HB), the occurrence of HBsAg among the population of different regions of Russia (in the central and northwestern regions among 1.8-2.4% of the population, in Tuva among 9.8% of the population, in Yakutia among 11.6% of the population) and considerable differences in the occurrence of HBeAg among HBsAg carriers in these regions (antibodies to delta virus have been detected in 1.3-5.5% of carriers of this antigen in the European part of Russia and in 21.0% of carriers in Tuva) are shown. The structure of the transmission routes of HB virus, the proportion of the artificial and natural routes of its transmission are analyzed. The data on the frequency of cases of perinatal and intrafamily HB virus infection in regions with different activity of the epidemic process, as well as the data on effectiveness of measures for the prevention of posttransfusion HB and parenteral infection during therapeutic and diagnostic interventions, are given. The results of the use of Engerix B vaccine among 2,500 persons belonging to groups of risk are presented. The proportion of hepatitis C (HC) cases among patients with different kinds of acute and chronic viral hepatitis among the population of different regions and the occurrence of anti-HC antibodies among the population of different regions of Russia (in Moscow and St. Petersburg among 1.1-1.2% of the population, in North Caucasia among 4.5% of the population), as well as in high risk groups (3.1% among medical personnel, 19.4% among drug addicts, 25% among patients of hemodialysis wards, ets), are considered. The structure of transmission routes of HC virus is analyzed, the possible measures for the prophylaxis of HC virus infection are considered.