This study is based on all victims of firearm injuries (n = 820) treated in public hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden, between 1972 and 1992. The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, criminality, and mortality in victims of firearm injuries. The diagnosis was accident in 56.0%, suicide/attempted suicide in 11.7%, murder/attempted murder in 20.6%, and undetermined in 11.7%. Information was procured from the Swedish National Population Register, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's register on causes of death, and the Swedish National Police Board's register on sentences passed. The average victim of a firearm injury was a young man, single, and often divorced. The proportion of immigrants was larger than expected, involvement in criminality was massive, and the mortality rate was high. The risk of being killed by the gunshot if brought to the hospital alive was relatively low, except in the cases of attempted suicide. The recurrent rate in violent trauma was high. It is suggested that secondary prevention could make an important contribution to the reduction of firearm injuries and fatalities. If the necessary surgical care is supplemented with a psychosocial intervention program to help the patient change his or her current situation, the number of "chronic" victims of violence could be reduced.