A retrospective study showed that from 1963-1992 200 eyes were enucleated or eviscerated in Iceland. The mean annual age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 population was 2.66, 50% higher for males than females. The mean annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence has decreased; was highest 3.58 per 100,000 for the period 1971-1978, but was 1.76 per 100,000 for the period 1985-1991. The indications were 1) Blind painful eye (92 eyes), 2) Suspicion of malignant neoplasm (49 eyes), 3) Acute trauma (35 eyes), 4) Corneal ulcer (17 eyes), 5) Other (7 eyes). Of blind painful eyes only 12 (6%) were due to neovascular glaucoma. Medical care is self-contained within the country, the incidence for enucleation is decreasing for all categories except malignancy.