Variant forms and post-translational modifications of transthyretin (TTR) can be identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate thiol conjugation of transthyretin and it's relation to age and symptomatic amyloid disease in different populations of variant TTR carriers. Plasma samples from 70 individuals from Denmark, Argentina, Sweden and Japan, with 2 different TTR mutations were analysed. The percentage cysteine (Cys) conjugated wild and variant TTR were calculated from the corresponding peaks of the spectra, and multiple regression analysis was employed to disclose relationships between age, symptomatic amyloid disease and origin. Age, origin and presence of symptomatic disease, were found to be independent factors related to transthyretin conjugation. A higher percentage of conjugated to unconjugated TTR was disclosed in symptomatic, but not in asymptomatic carriers. In summary: Thiol conjugation of TTR is dependent on age and presence of symptomatic amyloid disease. Furthermore, it varies between different populations. Variant TTR is more susceptible to thiol conjugation than the wild type. Post-translational factors may be related to amyloid formation and/or toxicity.