The authors have seen transient pancytopenia with erythroid hypoplasia and striking trilineage myelodysplasia reminiscent of true myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in 3 children, 1 with thalassemia intermedia and the other 2 with previously undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis. In these 3 children transient pancytopenia and myelodysplasia coincided with serological evidence of acute parvovirus-B19 (PV-B19) infection, strongly suggesting their relevance. It is of interest that these 3 cases were encountered within a period of 6 months. This might be an incidental event, but it might also be concluded that acute PV-B19 infection associated transient pancytopenia with morphological appearance of MDS may occur more frequently than reported in the literature. So, PV-B19-associated nonclonal MDS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of true clonal MDS.