We present a study of the pattern of elbow fractures in children under 15 years of age, during a 5-year period, with special reference to supracondylar humerus fractures. The incidence was 308/100 000 per year; 58% of the children had a fracture in the supracondylar area of the humerus. There were 355 elbow fractures, and there were 164 boys (46%) and 191 girls (54%). The mean age for the entire group was 7.9 years (for boys, 7.2 years; for girls, 8.5 years). Of 209 supracondylar fractures (including 5 combination fractures), 134 were type I, 40 were type II, and 35 were type III (as classified by Gartland). Associated temporary nerve injuries involving the median, radial, and ulnar nerves were seen in 15 patients with type III supracondylar fractures. Associated brachial artery injuries were seen in 6 patients, 5 of whom had type III fractures.