1. During the period 1990-1999, 1,715 renal transplants were performed in Denmark, corresponding to 31.8 per million population per year. Seventy-five per cent were cadaver donor transplants; in 25%, a living donor kidney was used. 2. Living donors of 437 kidneys were mainly parents (54%) and siblings (36%). In 20 transplants, a kidney from a living-unrelated donor was used. 3. The overall actuarial patient survival rates at one and 5 years were 91.0% and 78.2%, respectively. The major causes of recipient death were cardiovascular disease and infection. 4. The overall actuarial graft survival rates at one and 5 years were 81.4% and 62.0%, respectively. The major single causes of graft loss were rejection (41%) and recipient death (32%). Graft survival has improved during the decade.