The number of individuals with chronic hepatitis B in Sweden has increased, mainly due to new immigrant groups. A safe and effective hepatitis B vaccine exists which allows a flexible dosing schedule. Most countries in the world adheres to the WHO recommendations to include this vaccine in the childhood vaccination regimen. This has led to a substantial drop in morbidity and mortality from hepatitis B virus infections in high endemic regions such as Taiwan. Sweden should consider changing its vaccination policy, including the vaccination of high risk groups only, and consider vaccination of all infants.