Inserm, U1144, Paris F-75006, France; Paris Diderot University, UMR-S 1144, Paris F-75013, France; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, University Hospitals Saint-Louis - Lariboisière - F. Widal, Departement of Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, Paris F-75010, France; FondaMental Foundation, Créteil F-94000, France. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Suicide attempts (SA) are more frequent in bipolar disorder (BD) than in most other mental disorders. Prevention strategies would benefit from identifying the risk factors of SA recurrence in BD. Substance use disorders (SUD) (including tobacco-related) are strongly associated with both BD and SA, however, their specific role for the recurrence of SA in BD remains inadequately investigated. Thus, we tested if tobacco smoking - with or without other SUDs - was independently associated with recurrent SA in BD.
916 patients from France and Norway with ascertained diagnoses of BD and reliable data about SA and SUD were classified as having no, single, or recurrent (=2) SA. Five SUD groups were built according to the presence/absence/combination of tobacco, alcohol (AUD) and cannabis use disorders. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the correlates of SA recurrence.
338 (37%) individuals reported at least one SA, half of whom (173, 51%) reported recurrence. SUD comorbidity was: tobacco smoking only, 397 (43%), tobacco smoking with at least another SUD, 179 (20%). Regression analysis showed that tobacco smoking, both alone and comorbid with AUD, depressive polarity of BD onset and female gender were independently associated with recurrent SA.
Lack of data regarding the relative courses of SA and SUD and cross-national differences in main variables.
Tobacco smoking with- or without additional SUD can be important risk factors of SA recurrence in BD, which is likely to inform both research and prevention strategies.