In order to optimize economic and organizational technologies for the provision of medical care to the population and to increase the effectiveness of preventive programs, an analysis of the accumulated morbidity and prevalence of monogenic hereditary diseases (MHDs) has been carried out in 13 federal subjects of the Russian Federation representing 11 ethnic groups: Russians of 6 regions, Tatars, Maris, Chuvashs, Bashkirs, Udmurts, Abazins, Adygeans, Nogays, Circassians and Karachays. The study of the population was carried out according to the developed protocol of complex genetic and epidemiological studies in the Research Center for Medical Genetics, which remains unchanged throughout the study. Here we have studied the structure of the genetic load and diversity of MHDs depending on the prevalence of diseases and in accordance with the classification by organ and system types of disease: neurological, ophthalmological, genodermatosis, skeletal, hereditary syndromes, and other hereditary pathology (metabolic hereditary diseases, disorders of blood, hearing, etc.). It is shown that the maximum number of patients (61.81%) falls in the group of frequent forms of MHDs, which differ by federal subjects / ethnic groups of the Russian Federation. There are frequent forms of MHDs for all populations, and "specific" forms for particular federal subjects of the Russian Federation/ethnic groups. Only for a small group of hereditary diseases there is treatment. Most of the detected diseases-psychiatric, neurological, hematological, and hereditary syndromes-significantly reduce life expectancy. Hereditary diseases of the skeleton, eyes, ears and metabolism affect the quality of life, adaptation in society and public health. On average, 65% of patients are diagnosed with MHDs for the first time. This situation implies changes in medical thinking, changes in education and development of both common for all regions and specific prevention programs. Thus, fundamental research in medicine can improve the quality of medical services and contribute to the improvement of public health.