The freshwater ultraoligotrophic Lake Labynkyr is located near the Pole of Cold in the northern hemisphere (Yakutia, Russia). The lake is covered by ice during 240 days a year. We undertook several expeditions to the lake during the ice and open water periods for sampling ice fouling, plankton and periphyton that were then analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. As a result, we identified a high biodiversity of diatoms-123 species and intraspecific taxa from 53 genera, among them 3 species were new for Russia and 26 taxa were new for the algal flora of Yakutia. The oligo- and xenosaprobionts and their variations dominate-71 taxa. 18 Species were evaluated as tolerant to cold oligotrophic waters, 12 occurred on the ice bottom, and 62 in the water column under ice (0-25 m). 104 taxa were found during the open water period, 70 taxa were identified in the periphyton. We showed the diatom flora of Lake Labynkyr to be unique compared with other lakes of Yakutia and to share taxa with the diatom flora of Lake Baikal. The diatoms being indicators of the global climate changes and ecological status of lakes, our data can be used as an evidence of such changes as well as to be useful studies of biogeography and history of formation of flora in Arctic and Subarctic waters.