The gut microbiota of birds is known to be characterized for different species, although it may change with feeding items. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of birds with different feeding behaviors in the same habitat. We collected fecal samples from three Arctic species, snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis, sanderlings Calidris alba, and pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus that are phylogenetically quite distant in different families to evaluate effects of diet on gut microbiota. Also, we characterized the prevalence of fecal bacteria using the Illumina MiSeq platform to sequence bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Our NMDS results showed that fecal bacteria of snow buntings and sanderlings were significantly distant from those of pink-footed geese. Although all three birds were occupied by three bacterial phyla, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, dominant taxa still varied among the species. Our bacterial sequences showed that snow buntings and sanderlings were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while pink-footed geese were dominated by Proteobacteria. In addition, the bacterial diversity in snow buntings and sanderlings was significantly higher than that in pink-footed geese. Our results suggest that insectivorous feeding diet of snow buntings and sanderlings could be responsible for the similar bacterial communities between the two species despite the distant phylogenetic relationship. The distinctive bacterial community in pink-footed geese was discussed to be related with their herbivorous diet.