We analysed the relationship between the chemical complex (concentration of dissolved ions, nutrients, pH) and biological parameters (primary production, biomass of phytoplankton, abundance and activity of bacterial communities) at estuaries of rivers and coastal waters of Southern Baikal during the under-ice period. Correlation network analysis revealed CO2 to be the main limiting factor for the development of algae and microbial communities in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal. This study indicates that primarily reverse synthesis of bicarbonate and carbonate ions associated with the development of phytoplankton and accumulation of dissolved CO2 during photosynthesis regulates pH in the Baikal water. We did not detect the anthropogenic factors that influence the change in pH and acidification. Near the Listvyanka settlement (Lake Baikal, Listvennichnaya Bay), there was a great number of organotrophs and thermotolerant bacteria with low bacterioplankton activity and high concentration of organic carbon. This evidences eutrophication due to the influx of organic matter having an anthropogenic source. Nutrients produced during the bacterial destruction of this matter may explain the changes in bottom phytocenoses of Listvennichnaya Bay.