This data article contains data on the Emiliania huxleyi abundance, phytoplankton composition, in the Barents Sea in summer 2014-2018, and physical and hydrochemical parameters in summer 2017. The data are based on the samples collected on stations, where E. huxleyi blooms were recorded. The physical data included the water temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations at the surface, and various depths. Data of nutrients concentrations included followed parameters: silicates, phosphates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. The nutrients ratios are also given. Data of phytoplankton composition consists of the abundance of diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and small flagellates. The data presented in this article are associated with the research article entitled "Interannual variability of Emiliania huxlei blooms in the Barents Sea: In Situ data 2014-2018" . The related research article examines the influence of abiotic factors such as temperature, salinity, nutrients concentrations, and biotic factors (phytoplankton composition) on E. huxleyi abundance.