Two new natural compounds, sulfated polyhydroxysteroid, microdiscusol G (1), and polyhydroxysteroid bioside, microdiscusoside A (2), along with eight previously known polar steroid substances 3-10, were isolated from the Arctic starfish Asterias microdiscus. The structures of 1 and 2 have been elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRESIMS techniques. The 28-sulfooxy-24-methylcholestane side chain in 1 has been found among starfish steroid metabolites for the first time. Steroid saponins 9 and 10 exhibited cytotoxic effects against normal cells JB6 Cl41 and cancer cells HT-29, MDA-MB-231, THP-1, and Raji and effectively suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of cancer cells HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 in non-toxic concentrations. Compounds 5, 7, and 8 were inactive or less active in the same experiments.