In this study we analysed the acoustic properties and presence of haddock calls in the Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden (79° N-12° E, Svalbard Islands, Norway) in one year. Data were collected with three autonomous acoustic recorders located in the inner, middle, and outer parts of the fjord. The fjord is characterized by a gradient of oceanographic conditions from the inner to the outer part, reflecting changes from Arctic to Atlantic waters. Haddock sounds were more abundant in the outer fjord than in the middle fjord, whereas they were absent at the inner site. Mainly at the open-water site, the call abundance exhibited strong periodicity and a correlation with the cycles of neap tide (15 days) in August, with a clear diel cycle (24 h) in September and October. This result suggests that in this extreme environment with 24 h of light during summer, haddock regulate their acoustic activity according to the main available oscillating external physical driver, such as tide during the polar summer, while when the alternation of light/dark starts, they shift the periodicity of their calls to a diel cycle. Calls were recorded outside the spawning period (from July to October), and their characteristics indicated non-reproductive communicative contests. By using a detailed sound analysis based on previous laboratory studies for the first time, we suggest that the monitored population contains mainly juveniles (44% compared to 41% females and only approximately 15% mature males), showing the predominance of females in the middle fjord and juveniles at the open-water site.