Enterovirus uveitis (EU) is a new infant eye disease that was first observed in 1980. Three distinct subtypes of human echoviruses, EV19/K, EV11/A and EV11/B, caused five hospital outbreaks of EU in different Siberian cities in 1980-1989, affecting approximately 750 children, predominantly below 1 year of age. Sporadic EU cases were also retrospectively diagnosed in other regions of Russia and in different countries of the Former Soviet Union. The illness was characterised by rapid iris destruction and severe complications, including cataract and glaucoma. The disease has been a subject of intensive studies and was reproduced in lower primates after intraocular inoculation of isolated enterovirus strains. Importantly, prototype EV11 and EV19 strains did not induce notable disease in experimental monkeys. Some of the EU-causing strains were shown to be similar phylogenetically and in their pathogenetic properties to the enterovirus strains associated with multisystem hemorrhagic disease of newborns. In this review we present a summary of the vast epidemiological, virological, clinical and experimental data on this new form of ophthalmic infection.