The large and diverse genus Salix L. is of particular interest for decades of biological research. However, despite the morphological plasticity, the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships was so far hampered by the lack of informative molecular markers. Infrageneric classification based on morphology separates dwarf shrubs (subg. Chamaetia) and taller shrubs (subg. Vetrix), while previous phylogenetic studies placed species of these two subgenera just in one largely unresolved clade. Here we want to test the utility of genomic RAD sequencing markers for resolving relationships at different levels of divergence in Salix. Based on a sampling of 15 European species representing 13 sections of the two subgenera, we used five different RAD sequencing datasets generated by ipyrad to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Additionally we reconstructed the evolution of growth form and analyzed the genetic composition of the whole clade. The results showed fully resolved trees in both ML and BI analysis with high statistical support. The two subgenera Chamaetia and Vetrix were recognized as nonmonophyletic, which suggests that they should be merged. Within the Vetrix/Chamaetia clade, a division into three major subclades could be observed. All species were confirmed to be monophyletic. Based on our data, arctic-alpine dwarf shrubs evolved four times independently. The structure analysis showed five mainly uniform genetic clusters which are congruent in sister relationships observed in the phylogenies. Our study confirmed RAD sequencing as a useful genomic tool for the reconstruction of relationships on different taxonomic levels in the genus Salix.