The current study examined associations between labor induction and both (1) offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in a Swedish birth cohort born 1992-2005 (n?=?1,085,008) and (2) indices of offspring low academic achievement in a sub-cohort born 1992-1997 (n?=?489,196). Associations were examined in the entire sample (i.e., related and unrelated individuals) with adjustment for measured covariates and, in order to account for unmeasured confounders shared within families, within differentially exposed cousins and siblings. We observed an association between labor induction and offspring ADHD diagnosis and low academic achievement in the population. However, these associations were fully attenuated after adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured factors that cousins and siblings share. The results suggest that observed associations between labor induction and ADHD and low academic achievement may be due to genetic and/or shared environmental factors that influence both mothers' risk of labor induction and offspring neurodevelopment.