Ineffective antimicrobial therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia increases mortality. Recent studies have proposed the use of antimicrobial combination therapy composed of a beta-lactam with either ciprofloxacin or tobramycin. To determine if combination therapy correlates to lower mortality and is superior compared to monotherapy, we investigated the effect of antimicrobial treatment regimens on 30-day mortality in a cohort with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia. All cases of P. aeruginosa bacteraemia (n?=?292) in southwest Skåne County, Sweden (years 2005-2010, adult population 361,112) and the whole county (2011-2012, 966,130) were identified. Available medical and microbiological records for persons aged 18 years or more were reviewed (n?=?235). Antimicrobial therapy was defined as empiric at admission or definitive after culture results and was correlated to 30-day mortality in a multivariate regression model. The incidence and mortality rates were 8.0 per 100,000 adults and 22.9% (67/292), respectively. As expected, multiple comorbidities and high age were associated with mortality. Adequate empiric or definitive antipseudomonal treatment was associated with lower mortality than other antimicrobial alternatives (empiric p?=?0.02, adj. p?=?0.03; definitive p?